Individual income tax rates in Egypt are progressive, up to 20%.
Income tax is imposed on the worldwide income of Egyptian residents. Non-residents are subject to tax on income earned or realised in Egypt.
Income (EGP) Tax Rate
Up to 5,000 0%
5,001 to 20,000 10%
20,001 to 40,000 15%
Over 40,000 20%
Individuals are not subject to a tax on capital gains except in the case of the disposal of real estate or building sites within the boundaries of Egyptian cities. Such gains are not subject to income tax but are taxed at the rate of 2.5% on the value of the property.
Basis - Resident individuals are taxed on their worldwide income; nonresidents are taxed only on their Egyptian-source income.
Residence - An individual is resident if he/she: (1) is present in Egypt for more than 183 days in a fiscal year; or (2) is deemed to have a permanent residence or a local commercial presence in Egypt under Executive Regulations; or (3) resides abroad but maintains income from Egyptian sources.
Tax Filing status - Employers generally are responsible for withholding and paying the salary tax due to the relevant tax authorities on a monthly basis. However, if the employee is paid from an offshore source, the individual is required to declare it to the relevant authorities at the end of the year.
Taxable income - This includes income from employment, commercial or industrial activities and non-commercial activities (i.e. the exercise of a profession). Mandatory profit sharing, pensions and end-of-service bonuses are not subject to salary tax.
Capital gains - Individuals are subject to tax on capital gains if the assets are sole proprietorship assets (including real estate). If not classified as sole proprietorship assets, real estate gains are subject to a separate tax of 2.5% on the gross gains.
Tax Deductions and Tax allowances - Available deductions depend on the type of income. Various allowances are available for items such as social security contributions and health insurance premiums.
Tax Rates - Progressive rates up to 20% on income over EGP 40,000 per year. Nonresident and resident employees who derive income from sources other than their original place of employment are subject to tax at a flat rate of 10%.
Other taxes on individuals:
Capital duty - No
Stamp duty - Stamp duty applies at various rates depending on the type of document.
Capital acquisitions tax - No
Real property tax - All real property in Egypt is subject to the real estate tax. The tax rate is 10% on the annual rental value after allowing a 30% deduction from the rental value to cover related costs for residential property and a 32% deduction for nonresidential property. A residential unit with an annual rental value less than EGP 6,000 is exempt. The property owner pays the real property tax, which is due in 2 instalments, one in January and one in July. The annual rental value of real estate is assessed every 5 years by the tax authorities.
Inheritance/estate tax - No
Net wealth/net worth tax - No
Social security - The social security regime applies to local nationals.
Administration and compliance:
Tax year - Calendar year
Filing and payment - Individuals must submit a declaration of income before 1 April following the end of the tax year and must pay tax based on the declaration. Employment income is taxed by withholding at source.
Tax Penalties - A penalty of EGP 10,000 applies in cases of tax evasion.
The standard rate of corporate tax in Egypt is 20% for manufacturing, trading and services companies, and 40.55% for companies engaged in the exploration and production of oil and gas. The Suez Canal Authority, the Egyptian Petroleum Authority and the Central Bank are taxed at 40%.
Egyptian corporations are subject to corporate profits tax on their profits derived from Egypt, as well as on profits derived from abroad, unless the foreign activities are performed through a permanent establishment located abroad. Foreign companies resident in Egypt are subject to tax only on their profits derived from Egypt.
Oil prospecting and production companies are subject to tax on their profits at a rate of 40.55%. The Suez Canal Company, Egyptian General Petroleum Company (EGPC) and Central Bank of Egypt are subject to tax on their profits at a rate of 40%.
Companies must file their annual tax returns, together with all supporting schedules and the original financial statements, before 1 May each year or four months from the financial year end. The tax return should be signed by the taxpayer. Taxpayers can file a request to extend the due date of filing the tax return provided they pay an estimated amount of tax. The request must be filed at least 15 days before the due date and the estimated tax due must also be paid before the due date. The extended period can be up to 60 days. An amended tax return can be filed within 30 days from the due date. Any tax due must be paid when the tax return is filed. A late penalty is applied at the rate of 2% plus the credit and discount rate issued by the Central Bank of Egypt as of January each year.
The law has set up appeals committees at two levels - the Internal Committee and the Appeal Committee. The Appeal Committee's decision is final and binding on the taxpayer and the tax department unless a case is appealed by either to the court within 30 days of receiving the decision, which is usually in the form of an assessment.
Residence - A company is resident if it is established according to Egyptian law, its main or actual headquarters is in Egypt or it is a company in which the state or a public juridical person owns more than 50% of the capital.
Basis - Resident companies are taxed on their worldwide income; nonresident companies pay tax only on Egyptian-source profits.
Taxable income - Corporation tax is imposed on a company's profits, which consist of manufacturing, services and trading activities and for the exploration and production of oil and gas.
Taxation of dividends - Dividends received from an Egyptian company are not taxable; dividends received from abroad are included in taxable profits and subject to tax at a rate of 20%, with a deduction allowed for foreign taxes paid abroad up to the amount of tax payable in Egypt. Income from investments in nonresident companies is taxed on the basis of equity accounting.
Capital gains - Gains of companies are treated as ordinary income and taxed at a rate of 20%.
Losses - Losses may be carried forward for 5 years. No carryback of losses is permitted.
Tax Rate - The standard rate of corporate tax is 20% for manufacturing, trading and services companies, and 40.55% for companies engaged in the exploration and production of oil and gas. The Suez Canal Authority, the Egyptian Petroleum Authority and the Central Bank are taxed at 40%.
Surtax - No
Alternative minimum tax - No
Foreign tax credit - Foreign tax paid abroad may be deducted from Egyptian income tax payable, but the deduction may not exceed the total tax payable in Egypt. Credit for foreign tax paid is permitted only for countries that have concluded a tax treaty with Egypt.
Participation exemption - No
Holding company regime - No
Tax Incentives - Projects established under the Free Zone System of the 1997 Investment Law No. 8 enjoy a corporate income tax exemption for the term of the specified project.
Dividends - No withholding tax is levied on dividends paid to residents or nonresidents.
Interest - Interest paid to nonresidents are subject to a 20% withholding tax, which may be reduced under a tax treaty. Interest paid under a long-term loan (i.e. exceeding 3 years) is not subject to withholding tax.
Royalties - Royalty payments made to nonresidents are subject to a 20% withholding tax, unless the rate is reduced under a tax treaty.
Branch remittance tax - No
Other taxes on corporations:
Capital duty - No
Payroll tax - No
Real property tax - All real property in Egypt is subject to the real estate tax. The tax rate is 10% on the annual rental value after allowing a 30% deduction from the rental value to cover related costs for residential property and a 32% deduction for nonresidential property. A residential unit whose annual rental value is less than EGP 6,000 is exempt. The property owner pays the real property tax, which is due in 2 instalments, one in January and one in July. The annual rental value of real estate is assessed every 5 years by the tax authorities.
Social security - The social security regime applies to local nationals.
Stamp duty - Stamp duty is charged at a wide range of rates and fixed charges. The rate on banking transactions is 0.04%, 15% on commercial advertisements and from 0.08% to 10% on insurance premiums.
Transfer tax - No
Other - Employees are entitled to 10% of cash dividends paid to shareholders. Amounts distributed under profit sharing may not be deducted for corporate income tax purposes and are not subject to salary tax.
Transfer pricing - Taxpayers are required to comply with the arm's length standard in related party transactions. There are 3 methods to determine the transfer price: (1) the comparative free price method; (2) the total cost plus profit margin method; and (3) the resale price method. The comparative free price method has priority, but if the information needed to apply this method is unavailable, either of the two other methods may be used. If none of the methods are deemed suitable by the taxpayer, any method specified under the OECD transfer pricing guidelines will be accepted.
Thin capitalization - A 4:1 debt-to-equity ratio applies. Any interest exceeding this ratio is nondeductible.
Controlled foreign companies - An Egyptian company will be required to pay corporate tax on its share of a CFC's income if the following conditions are satisfied: (1) the income is not subject to tax in the country where the nonresident company is registered or is otherwise exempt from tax, or the tax rate in that country does not exceed 75% of the tax rate levied in Egypt; (2) the ownership in the nonresident company exceeds 10%; and (3) more than 70% of the nonresident company's income is from dividends, interest, royalties or management fees or rental fees.
Disclosure requirements - No
Administration and compliance:
Tax year - Accounting year
Consolidated returns - Consolidated returns are not permitted; each company must file a separate return.
Tax Filing requirements - Companies must file a tax return before 1 May or within 4 months following the end of the financial year. Tax is assessed on the basis of the information provided in the tax return.
Tax Penalties - A penalty of EGP 10,000 is imposed in cases of tax evasion.
DEPRECIATION AND AMORTISATION ALLOWANCES
Depreciation is deductible for tax purposes and may be calculated using either the straight-line or declining-balance method. Depreciation rates are as follows:
Type of asset Rate Method of Depreciation
Buildings 5% Straight-line
Intangible assets 10% Straight-line
Computers 50% Declining-balance
Heavy machinery and equipment 25% Declining-balance
Small machinery and equipment 25% Declining-balance
Vehicles 25% Declining-balance
Furniture 25% Declining-balance
Other tangible assets 25% Declining-balance
Accelerated depreciation is allowable only once at a rate of 30% on new machines and equipment in the year they are placed into service.
Normal depreciation is calculated after considering the accelerated 30% depreciation on the net value of new assets, provided that proper books of account are maintained.
Tax losses may be carried forward for five years. Losses incurred in long-term projects can be also carried back within the same project.
The General Sales Tax (GST) applies to the supply of most goods and the provision of services.
GST Rates - The standard GST rate is 10%. GST rates changes between 0 - 30%.
Registration - Manufacturers and service providers with turnover in excess of EGP 54,000 must register for GST purposes. Wholesalers and retailers are required to register where turnover exceeds EGP 150,000.
Filing and payment - All companies must prepare and file a monthly sales tax return with the relevant sales tax authority.
Income Tax Rate
Corporate Tax Rate
Sales Tax / VAT Rate
Last Update: Nov 2010
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